Hyacinth (Hyacinthus) was introduced to Europe around the XVI century. This fragrant universal flower is grown in open flowerbeds, in greenhouses and greenhouses, at home, in pots or bought in cut form just for flowerpots. It blooms in early spring and winter, but only if it is able to grow it properly. About the features of this plant and its planting, reproduction can be found below in the article.
Home to the flowers of hyacinths is the Mediterranean and the land of the Middle East. Hyacinth flower is a perennial bulbous plant. All species are characterized by similar external features. The bulb is always dense, consists of fleshy leaves. The stem is dense, thick, with a height of between 20-40 cm. The inflorescence matures above. The leaves are grooved, green, 15-20 cm long and about 1.5 cm wide.
Flowers of a hyacinth always gather in one brush, as an ear. They have a rich, bright aroma that spread throughout the district. Perianth in the form of a funnel with folded blades, has a bright color. The fruit is a box with 3 nests. The natural color of hyacinth is blue, but thanks to the work of breeders, new varieties and hybrids delight us with a rich color palette (white, different shades of pink and red, yellow, violet, blue). After flowering, the flower itself dies, then the stem and the surrounding leaves, but the bulb itself remains intact and gives new buds after a short rest.
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Varieties of hyacinths
Hyacinth flower is incredibly popular, so breeders do not get tired of creating new varieties with the most unusual colors.
- "Yang Bos" gives red flowers with a diameter of 3 cm. At the edges they are lighter than in the middle. Zev whitish. In the inflorescence up to 30 flowers, it is small, but dense, cone-shaped, up to 10 cm in height and 5.5 cm in diameter. Powerful peduncle - 16-18 cm. Early flowering, can give a second color. Suitable for early forcing.
- "Delft Blue" - an early variety, with a height of 30 cm. The inflorescences are tight, bright blue. The leaves are not very many, they have a green color. The aroma is strong but gentle. Suitable for forcing.
- "Yellow Queen" - large-flowered hyacinth with cream-yellow color of buds and white edging. Flowers up to 4 cm in diameter, in the inflorescence there are up to 50 flowers. The inflorescence is dense, cylindrical. The height of the flower is 30 cm, it blooms in April. Suitable for forcing.
- "Rosalia" grows up to 20 cm in height. The buds are pink. The inflorescence is usually narrow, but dense with 15-20 flowers with a diameter of 2 cm. This variety is very beautiful, but, unfortunately, the flowering period is short.
- "Edelweiss" - hyacinth, growing in the range of 20-25 cm. The inflorescence is high, wide, with 20 flowers of medium size (diameter 3.5 cm). It blooms in mid-April. The buds are always white, stand out against the background of bright green foliage.
Distillation and planting hyacinth
Hyacinths can grow both indoors and outdoors. They can often be found on sale, in small pots, in winter or in early spring - these are some of the most popular colors. But in order to get winter flowering at home, it is necessary to conduct forcing in time. Distillation is a set of measures aimed at enhancing plant growth. For its implementation, hyacinth bulbs are placed in conditions of elevated temperature, humidity, arranged for highlighting, feeding to awaken the culture and achieve rapid growth.
Only healthy, dense bulbs of at least 5-6 cm in size are suitable for forcing. They should not be light, painful or damaged! Preparation of such bulbs begins in the summer. After the hyacinth has faded and the foliage has withered, planting material is dug out, washed and dried in the shade. This time is usually at the end of June. Then, it is placed in storage in a dry and cool room until September, so that the plant can rest and recuperate.Important! For forcing it is best to take the bulbs grown in open ground. And in order to get one hundred percent result, it is recommended to pay attention to the varieties bred specifically for distillation.
Care at home for a hyacinth is very simple, if you initially landed correctly. Planting time depends on when you need to get flowers. For example, when planting a hyacinth in September, the flowers get around the New Year, and planting in mid-November ensures flowering by March.
Before planting the bulbs for 30 minutes, determine the solution of potassium permanganate in order to disinfect. Soil can be purchased for indoor plants. Capacity for planting may be different: individual cups, pots for several plants - it depends on why the flower is grown. Pots are filled with soil almost to the top, then plant the bulb (the top should be at the level of the edge of the container) bottom down. If several plants are planted, the distance between them should be at least 3 cm.
After planting, the pot is covered with foil (with holes for ventilation) and placed in a dark, cool place, for example, in a refrigerator for 2 months. The temperature of the content should be within the limits of +5 degrees. As the top of the soil dries, it should be moistened. When the shoots reach a height of 3-5 cm, they are transferred to a room with a temperature of +12 degrees and a slight dimming. After 2-3 days, you can put them closer to the light, but on a permanent, sunny place you can transfer the hyacinth flower when it releases the buds.
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Even if a hyacinth shoots an arrow, it does not mean that he will give beautiful, big flowers. To bloom was abundant and long, you need to ensure good growth conditions. Care at home for hyacinth involves the implementation of several basic rules.
- After the hyacinth flower has set the pagon with a bud, you need to place it in a permanent place in the house, where it will bloom. Such a place should be bright and warm.
- The room temperature is maintained within + 15 ... +20 degrees Celsius.
- The soil should be wet all the time. Drying or excess water will shorten the flowering period and damage the bulb.
- Top dressing will provide longer flowering. For this irrigation is carried out with mineral fertilizers. Any complex means for flowering house plants will do.
Leaving after flowering
As you can see, home care for hyacinth does not present much difficulty. But what to do when the plant has faded? Unfortunately, the bulb used for the forcing can not be reused for this procedure. But this does not mean that it should be thrown away. After flowering at home, in a pot, it is transplanted into the garden, where the hyacinth will continue to grow and give flowers once a year - in the spring. How to do it?Interesting! In order for a hyacinth to give a large, lush color in a potted winter, you cannot let it bloom in spring, in open ground! As soon as the plant begins to start sprouting, it must be cut off so that it puts all its energy on the development of the bulb.
Immediately after the distillation is over, and the plant has given a flower, it is left at home, watered and tended, as indicated above. But when the culture has faded, and the leaves begin to fade, you can stop regular watering. The leaves should dry out completely, then they are removed, the onion is removed from the soil and placed in storage in a cool and dry place. Planting in open ground is carried out in the fall, when the temperature of the earth will be + 5 ... + 10 degrees (September-October).
Hyacinth is planted on a bright area where there is a lot of sun, there is no swampiness and constant shadow. The soil should be loose. A hole is made in the ground or a groove, and hyacinths are planted there (1-2 cm from the ground level). It is better to mulch the earth for the winter so that the bulbs do not freeze out.
The main feature of the hyacinth is that the bulb does not form replacement bulbs, like a tulip. In the reproduction of plants used bulbs and kids. But the seeds are used only for the breeding of new varieties.
When babies appear in the central bulb, reproduction can be carried out. To do this, dig the onion, it will be up to 4 children. They are separated and used for planting. To have many children, you need to cut the bottom of the bulb with a pointed teaspoon and remove the bases of scaly leaves, and then plant the bulb in the soil. Keeping the temperature at +20 degrees, you can get a lot of babies for 2 months, which appear on sections of scaly leaves.
The second option is less complicated. It is only necessary to cut the bottom of the bulb 0.5 cm 2-4 times, and then place the bulb in a dry, warm place (+20 degrees) for a day. Then the bulb is planted in the ground and after 2-3 months you can collect the children.
Important! When incising the bulb, it is recommended to treat the cut sites with fungicides to prevent infection.
Diseases and other problems
Yellow Bacterial Rot
Hyacinths rarely get sick. The cause of the development of diseases or the appearance of pests can be a bad planting material, contaminated land, an unfavorable place for growth.
- Yellow bacterial rot infects the hyacinth flower in the bulb. And as a result, they turn into shapeless mucus with an unpleasant odor. The process of decay cannot be stopped, therefore any affected onions are burned.
- If the inflorescence falls out, it means that the plant has too much water and you need to stop watering or even transplant to save the onion.
- Hyacinth does not bloom when the rules for watering, lighting, or bad ground for growth are not followed.
- Yellowing leaves is a signal that the plant has little light or moisture.
So that the leaves and peduncle do not bend, and the growth was active, it is necessary to pickle the ground and the bulb before use for planting in potassium permanganate. This will avoid the development of parasite larvae.