Spanish Kozel, scoroner or black carrots are cultivated as a vegetable. The plant has a mass of beneficial qualities, but although it can grow in many countries as a weed, for a large, high-quality crop, it is necessary to plant and care for the plantings correctly. This article describes what black carrots are, the best varieties, benefits, harms, as well as the peculiarities of agricultural culture.
What is black carrot
Black carrot is a perennial plant of the Astrov family. Representatives of this genus are most often grassy crops, and sometimes shrubs. The leaves are lily, lily-lantsentnye or entire. Scorzonera flowers appear only in the second year of cultivation. They are mostly yellow, in rare cases pink. Achenes linear-cylindrical with a bat of red feathery hairs.
Scorzonera flowers appear only in the second year, mostly yellow
Where the Kozel grows, many gardeners are interested. Under natural conditions, the culture is found mainly in arid regions, from the shores of the Mediterranean to East Asia. But you can grow black carrots in almost any climate zone.Interesting! For a long time and to this day, black carrot is used in Spain as a medicine for the bite of certain types of snakes.
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Scorzonera in the market or in the store is extremely difficult to find, because the vegetable is in low demand. Therefore, plant seeds are most often ordered via the Internet. There are only a few known varieties that are suitable for cultivation in Russia.
- "Overseas delicacy"- medium maturity type of black carrot. The socket is semi-raised, up to 17 cm in height, and in girth about 12 cm. Leaves are green, small. Carrots are even, elongated, brown in color. Length - 35 cm, diameter up to 3.2 cm, weight - 100-130 g. The flesh is white. The yield from a square planting up to 2 kg.
- "Medical"- a variety that yields for 120 days. The rosette is semi-raised. The leaves are ovate-elongated, arranged on oblong petioles. The root crop is conical, brown in color, weighing up to 80 g.
Varieties and seeds of black carrots
- "Russian giant"grows up to 75 cm in height. The leaves are ovate, oblong, grow sprawling. The inflorescences that grow in the second year have yellow buds gathered in baskets. The carrots are cylindrical, rich in vitamins and minerals. The use is universal.
- "Solar premiere"ripens in 110 days. The rosette is vertical, the leaves are oblong and rounded. The carrots are cylindrical in shape, up to 32 cm in length and weighing about 75-80 g. The skin is dark brown and the pulp is white. From the square of the plot is collected up to 1.8 kg of crop .
- "Roma"- recommended for people with diabetes. The fruit is even and oblong, 30 cm long. The skin is almost black in color. The flesh is whitish, with a high content of juice. The taste is astringent, with a small amount of sugar. In the second year the culture produces large inflorescences yellow flowers.
Features of growing varieties
Among the most unpretentious vegetables, black carrots occupy a leading position. It is usually planted on a plot that is not suitable for growing other crops or near other perennials. Land before planting is desirable to fertilize with wood ash or minerals. Thus, it is possible to increase the germination of the plant, to improve its nutritional properties. But humus or manure to make before sowing black carrots can not be!It is important! Black carrots give very good harvests in areas where garlic and onions, tomatoes, and cucumbers previously grew.
Sow Scorzonera spring, summer or fall - when it is convenient.
Among the most unpretentious vegetables, black carrots occupy a leading position
- When spring planting harvest is obtained in the same year. Seeds are soaked and sown since late April. Crops are recommended to cover with a film, so that the seeds sprout faster.
- If you sow a crop in the summer, then it will be grown as a biennial plant. In the summer they sow fresh seeds collected in the same year or last. In summer and autumn, such a plant will develop, then perezimuet, and in the spring or next summer will give roots and seeds.
- Autumn planting involves harvesting the following year, a few weeks earlier than black carrots planted in the spring.
The first shoots of black carrot appear after 2 weeks or even earlier. When 2-3 leaves appear, it is possible to thin out plantings so that there is about 15 cm of free space between plants. When the shoots rise 7 cm in height, the ground beneath them is mulched with peat or straw. If this is not done, frequent weeding will be required.
After ripening (100-120 days on average), the crop is harvested and harvested. When digging you need to be careful - this vegetable is more brittle than a simple carrot! To keep it longer, you can put it in the fridge or in a cool basement if it is dry there.Interesting! If you did not have time to harvest the crop before the cold, you can leave the scoroner to spend the winter in the ground, but in the spring you can dig it out and use it for its intended purpose.
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Black carrots are used primarily in cooking and in traditional medicine. It is used raw, peeled and seasoned with vegetable oil. It is also suitable for preparing desserts, snacks, juice, stewing, frying, boiling, freezing and even canning. Most often the root vegetable of this plant is used for food, but the young greens are also edible. She is allowed to make salads.
This vegetable goes well with meat, fish and a wide variety of vegetables, herbs. For the first course, it gives a pleasant aroma, and in desserts like jelly, it improves color.
The aroma of the pulp gives a little vanilla. The taste of a black carrot is not as sweet as a simple orange one, even if you take care of it according to all the rules. The taste is bitter, but with sweet notes, in some places it can be spicy. Experts compare it with black radish or asparagus.
The benefits of black carrots
The use of scoroners has been studied since the time of Alexander the Great. In those days, it was a real delicacy, used not only in the preparation of various dishes, but also medicines. So, what is the use of black carrot:
Since the days of Alexander the Great, black carrots have been used as a delicacy and medicine.
- It has a very rich composition including sugars, vitamins (B1, B2, C, E), minerals (phosphorus, iron, calcium, etc.).
- This is a natural source of inulin - a substance that diabetics need. It also includes levulin and aspargin.
- This vegetable is very well absorbed by the body.
- It helps in the fight against vitamin deficiency, anemia, obesity, diabetes, influenza, ARVI and some other diseases.
- Black carrots are used to lower blood pressure and improve vision. It can also relieve inflammation in the body.
Harm and contraindications
When first used, it is worthwhile to limit the intake of scoroneri to a small amount of root crop in order to check the body's reaction to a new product. Individual intolerance - the main problem that may arise when using culture. It is not recommended to eat it and people with a stomach ulcer. With regular use, a mild laxative effect is possible - this is due to the composition and properties of black carrot.
Black carrots are a little-known culture with a rich, beneficial composition. It is very simple in cultivation, but it is in great demand only in the countries of the Mediterranean and in East Asia. From it preparing delicious dishes and medicinal drugs. Although Scorzoner’s traditional drugs cannot be replaced, it is used rather as an adjunct.