Durum wheat is a type of wheat rich in gluten. This species is known from the Neolithic era. The culture is growing rapidly, has excellent taste. For normal development, hard wheat varieties need warm and nutritious soil.
Biological signs of durum wheat
Durum wheat has its own unique biological features by which it is easy to distinguish it from soft species. This is a monocotyledonous culture. Spike can be different colors. The stem is rather thick. The leaves are without villi, bright green. Varieties of durum wheat have a large, dense, spiky spike. The spines are parallel to the spike rod. Grains are always large, ribbed and glassy. From the sides they are flattened slightly, the color is often brown or yellowish.
Durum wheat has its own unique biological attributes.
The average caloric value of wheat is 340 kcal / 100 g. It contains a lot of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. She is rich in:
- essential oils;
- vitamins (A, PP, E, F, C);
- minerals (silicon, calcium, iron, fluorine, phosphorus, selenium, sodium);
- amino acids (valine, lysine, glutamic acid, leucine);
- natural sugars.
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Hard and soft wheat varieties have significant differences.
- Regions with a continental climate are suitable for growing durum wheat. For example, it is grown in large quantities in North America, Canada, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Western Siberia. Soft wheat varieties are grown in Western Europe and Australia.
- In soft wheat varieties, the stem is hollow, thin. But in durum wheat stem is always dense, thick-walled.
- Hard grain grains are hard and small. In soft wheat, they are larger, softer.
Flour from durum wheat contains a lot of gluten.Interesting! More than 80% of durum wheat supplied to the Russian market is grown in the Orenburg region.
- Flour from durum wheat contains a lot of gluten. Starch grains in it are small, solid. For kneading dough from it requires a lot of water, with the final product (bread, pasta), it turns out nourishing, nutritious. Soft wheat flour is mainly used for baking. It is tender, soft, contains little gluten, therefore absorbs some water. Such flour guarantees fluffy, airy dough.
- Compared to soft species, hard wheat varieties are more beneficial to the human body.
Description of durum wheat
Durum wheat is divided into two large groups - spring and winter crops. Spring wheat is predominantly grown in Russia because it is not resistant to frost, and dry, hot summer is not a problem for it. The winter variety of wheat tolerates frosty winters better, but does not tolerate drought.
Durum wheat is quite a lot. And each species has its own unique qualities.
- "Kubanka" - Late, spring wheat, popular in the North Caucasus. It has an oblong, loose ear. The color is yellow or light red. The grains are pale yellow, rather long.
- "White Hat" - This is a well-known, spring variety, divided in turn into three types of numbers. It is grown mainly on the Volga, on virgin soil. Spike tetrahedral, red, dense, awned, without pubescence. The grains are white.
Durum wheat is divided into two large groups - spring and winter crops.
- "Garnovka" - yellow, spring wheat with a black mustache spikelet and bluish bloom. Grains are dense, elongated, vitreous type. Used in the manufacture of pasta. Productivity is high.
- "Aftermath" - grown in Afghanistan, Palestine, Greece, Ethiopia, Syria. It grows above a meter. Spike dense with long awns. The grains are elongated, golden. There is a groove on the grain, open, shallow. It is resistant to drought and disease.
- "Black Hair" - wheat with a developed root system. Due to the fact that its roots can penetrate deep into the ground, this variety does not need much watering. It grows rather slowly, moreover, in the fields with this crop, herbicides are indispensable, because weeds inhibit its growth. Outwardly and in quality, it resembles the Garnovka variety.
- "Melanopus 26" - artificially bred mid-season, spring variety used for the production of pasta. Oval-shaped vitreous grains. In growing unpretentious, to drought, disease, lodging and shattering resistant. Productivity is high.
- "Bezenchukskaya" - mid-season wheat, productive. Ear prismatic, with lanceolate scales. The grain extended with furrow. Stay 2 times as long as ears. The variety is resistant to drought.
- "Krasnoturka" - spring variety of durum wheat. Glassy grains contain a lot of nitrogenous substances. This is a very valuable wheat, similar to the "Garnovka".
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Hard varieties of wheat make a variety of products. Durum flour is often called "strong". Bread from it turns out fragrant and nourishing, does not get stale for a long time.
Italian pasta, known for its taste and qualities, are made exclusively from durum wheat.
Italian pasta, known for its taste and qualities, are made exclusively from durum wheat. At the same time, pasta is mainly produced from wheat, imported from the USA and Canada. The reason is that in Italy this variety is grown in small quantities.
Bulgur porridges and couscous, wafer cups, meat semi-finished products are prepared from durum wheat flour. The secondary product of processing is a solid type semolina.Important! Wholemeal flour is most often made from durum wheat. But this variety allows producing fine-grained flour.
The benefits of durum wheat
The rich composition of durum wheat indicates its benefit.
- Such wheat has a low glycemic index. After its use, blood sugar does not increase dramatically (as is the case with soft varieties).
- With frequent use of pastries from soft wheat varieties, body fat deposits appear. But hard wheat does not create the risk of weight gain.
The use of flour products from durum wheat contribute to the increase in serotonin
- Hard wheat varieties contain a lot of fiber. And, as you know, fiber has a beneficial effect on the intestines, improves the microflora, cleans it of toxins and toxins.
- The use of flour products from durum wheat helps to increase serotonin, which helps to cope with stress and improves mood.
- Vitamins and minerals have a positive effect on immunity, the condition of muscles, bones.
- Increases the level of glycogen, necessary for maintaining health.
- Hard wheat varieties reduce the risk of cancer and slow down the aging process of the skin.
Harm and contraindications
Wheat by itself is not dangerous, but if, for example, pasta is used with fatty gravy, sauces that are harmful to health, then the dish will be of no use and can lead to weight gain, reduced energy and other similar problems. So to use products from durum wheat, it is recommended with healthy products.
In addition, it is important to always read what the same pasta or other similar products are made of. The fact is that the pasta is made from soft flour too. Ignoring the label, you might think that this is a useful product made from solid flour, but it turns out that it is made from soft flour. So before you buy, you need to read what kind of flour was used to make the product, then there will be no health problems.
It should also be borne in mind that durum wheat varieties are contraindicated in case of individual intolerance, diabetes, exacerbations of gastrointestinal diseases, and endocrine gland hyperfunctions.